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Translation of Program Notes for La Scala Raymonda


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We received a query with three questions:

1. Does anyone have a translation of the program notes for the La Scala Raymonda or know where one could be found? (is there an online version that could be machine translated as a start?)

2. I'm particularly looking for the Hungarian source material for Glazunov's score. So many of the tunes in Act III are clearly taken from folk tunes, but which ones?

3. Also, is the Hungarian National Anthem a source for the last big tune?
Any responses to any of the questions would be greatly appreciated flowers.gif
(If there's anyone who prefers to answer privately without posting, we'd be happy to hear from you via our "Contact Us" link.)
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The YouTube poster "Mrossinifreak" likes to provide extensive program notes:


Ballet Raymonda: Olesia Novikova, La Scala.
Michail Jurovsky conducts

Raymonda is a ballet in three acts and four scenes with an apotheosis.
Choreography: Marius Petipa and others (among them Nureyev)
Music: Alexander Glazunov (Алехандер Глазунов)

Act I Scene I
The cast is set at the time of the crusades.
Raymonda, the niece of the Countess Sybil de Daurice, а French noblewoman, is betrothed to Jean de Brienne.

De Brienne arrives at the castle. Не has come to bid farewell to Raymonda before leaving to go on а crusade led by the King of Hungary, Andrei II.
Jean de Brienne presents her with a silk shawl as a farewell gift. Raymonda's first solo immediately shows her as an exquisite young woman whose path is strewn with flowers. When Jean puts the shawl around her shoulders she seems to sense the symbolic power of this gift of love but she also painfully senses that Jean's feelings for her have no real depth, that he will leave her easily for his world of knightly fights, tournaments and crusades. The guests try to cheer Raymonda up with a grand valse and can even persuade her to dance a solo by which she tries to overcome her melancholy mood.
Quite unexpectedly a new guest enters in the court: it is the Saracen prince Abderakhman who tries to overwhelm Raymonda with presents which she refuses. However, at the end -- deeply fascinated by the sensual power of the prince, - she accepts the gesture when Abderakhman presents her with a spray of jasmine.

The festivities are ending, but Raymonda is hypnotized, bewildered by the sudden intrusion of an erotic elemental force upon her seemingly secure happiness with Jean. Clémence, Henriette and the two troubadours try to cheer her up. And in a dance with Jean's shawl Raymonda tries to reassure herself of her love for him.
She takes leave of her friends and falls asleep. Entranced by the sweet scent of the jasmine that seems to embody an erotic oriental world, her shoulders wrapped in Jean's shawl, the symbol of the perfect elegance of the court, she begins to dream.

Scene II
In her dream The White Lady appears and leads Raymonda into an unknown world.
Raymonda falls under the spell of the dance of a group of fairytale girls that finally leads her to a magic reunion with Jean in an adage. At the climax of the dream which follows the formal structure of classical ballet with the adage followed by variations for Clémence, Henriette, the White Lady and Raymonda herself, as well as a coda where Jean can demonstrate his virile strength -- Raymonda suddenly sees the Saracen prince Abderakhman in the place of Jean and is overwhelmed by his fascination, his seductive power and blunt erotic attack. Only the intervention of the White Lady averts the extreme. Raymonda awakens in deep confusion, with the shawl and the jasmine spray in her hands.

Act II Scene I
The court society assembles for a festivity called "La Cour d'amour", a popular pastime of the aristocracy in the South of France, at which troubadours court elegant ladies according to strict rules of etiquette. Jean de Brienne, busy with preparations for the crusade, is delayed and instead, Abderakhman appears. Raymonda is dismayed and delighted at the same time. They dance together and he observes the exquisite rules of the courtly festivity with perfect politeness. His entourage entertains the society with exotic dances ending in a bacchanale. At its climax, in a fury of passionate love, Abderakhman commands the abduction of Raymonda.

At this moment Jean de Brienne and King Andreas II appear. The king urges the two men to decide their rivalry, as befits knightly rules, in a duel. This seems to end in a draw until the White Lady appears and gives Jean the strength to inflict a deadly wound on Abkerakhman. The Saracen dies at Raymonda's feet. She is deeply distressed and can only see Jean as Abderakhman's murderer.

Jean senses Raymonda's predicament and her repulse. Again he begins to court her and for the first time really endeavours to win her love. He succeeds in winning back her confidence.

Scene II
The wedding ceremony confirms the love between Raymonda and Jean de Brienne. In honour of the Hungarian King Andreas II the courtiers are dressed in Hungarian style, dance the czardas and finally the "grand pas classique hongrois". It begins with a great adage for nine couples led by Raymonda and Jean. This is followed by variations for four men (Béranger, Bernard and two other troubadours), for two ladies (Clémence and Henriette), for Jean and finally for Raymonda. Her solo expresses her strength of character and secret melancholy of conquered pain. The coda leads to an apotheosis and the blessing by the White Lady.

Obviously, there's a problem with the labeling of the acts above. ;)

Edited by pherank
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Thanks for the synopsis, but what I'm really looking for are the historical notes for this production. What is the source material for the re-staging? Is there a historical note on the Raymonda productions around the world?

Also, I'm looking for the folk music sources for Glazunov's score, mostly for Act III. Is the Hungarian National Anthem used as the apotheosis music?

Thanks to everyone for their help with this. -Peter Anastos

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According to the Wikipedia articles on the Hungarian national anthem, there is one official anthem and two unofficial ones.

Mme. Hermine linked to "Himnusz," the most well-known musical version of the official national anthem, which had several musical versions, according to the article on it.

Of the unofficial ones, there are a few phrases in the Rakoczi March (circa 1730) that remind me of "Raymonda," but that could be just genre similarities:


Szózat (1840) is the other unofficial anthem. I don't hear much of a similarity to music from "Ramonda."

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I am not aware that the La Scala notes have been translated into English, save for the synopsis. Nearly all of the articles for the program book were originally in Russian and were translated into Italian for the publication.

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